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Stopping excessive black smoke / solutions to the "black smoke syndrome"

All Diesel Models: The most important thing to note here is that you do not need to pay anybody on eBay, or anywhere else, for the information or parts for the solution to this "syndrome".
Firstly you have to realise that diesels will always create more visible smoke then petrol engines, particularly under acceleration. The first steps to reducing any excessive smoke is to ensure that your Surf is properly serviced. A good quality clean air filter and clean injectors are the first steps, and will help your economy and performance too. Another thing many owners do is to block the EGR valve, this is the magic secret all those eBay vendors wish to charge you for!
Many owners have found that blocking the EGR results in reduced smoke and improved torque and economy, whilst others have experienced reduced economy and no reduction in smoke. Koi from the hiluxsurf.co.uk forum has a good description of the EGR here, along with some pictures (for the 2.4TD engine) here. Please note that performing this modification may result in undesired effects including an increase in the emission of NOx, whilst a few have speculated it may increase the possibility of cracked cylinder heads.
As with any modification, no matter how small, you must be aware that you are altering the vehicle from its original specification and should satisfy yourself as to the suitability of any modification before carrying it out. Any modifications you perform on your vehicle are entirely at your own risk.
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Two batteries in my Surf, is this normal?

2nd & 3rd Gen, except V6: The twin battery configuration is standard on 4 diesel cylinder models with SSR-G trim or with the winter pack, they may optionally be fitted on other models, the remainders have a conventional single battery system. Both batteries are wired in parallel, so normal 12v electrics are still used throughout. By having two batteries it enabled Toyota to use cheaper and smaller batteries and still provide the required CCA (Cold Cranking Amps) to start the Diesel engines in extreme conditions. Diesel engines are harder to start than petrol engines dues to the much higher compression ratios. Models with V6 petrol engines do not have sufficient room in the engine bay to fit the twin battery configuration.
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Oil changes, How often is this needed, and how do I do it?

All Diesel Models: If you’ve never had a Diesel before the most important new item to note is the frequency of oil changes, these are vital to the longevity of any diesel engine. Oil must be changed every 5000kms, the oil filter is only specified for changing every 10,000kms i.e. every other oil change, although many owners will change the filter at every oil change.
On all models the oil filter is located on the L/H side of the engine block.
On the 2.4TD looking under the L/H wheel arch you will find a small panel which when removed gives you access to remove the filter.
On 3.0TD models the filter is removed from above the engine. These have a catch tray around the bottom of the filter to catch the oil that spills out on removal. This is routed thru a drain tube to the underside of the vehicle. Ensure this tube is over your waste container before removing the filter.
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Servicing requirements, What are they?

Still missing from this FAQ for a start.............
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Service parts and spares, Where can I get them?

All Models: Most normal service parts should be available from your local motor factors. Your Local Toyota dealership should also be able to supply any parts you require once you provide them with your chassis number. Independent suppliers such as Roughtrax and Milner can also supply a large selection of service/spare and accessory parts. If all else fails try posting your requests in the Hiluxsurf forums Parts wanted section. Many people worry that because the Surf is an import they will be unable to get parts for them, to date this has proved a wholly unfounded fear.
Having said that, remember some early Surfs (1st Gen) are now 20 years old, so much like most vehicles of that age you can expect some body parts etc to be a little difficult (but not necessarily impossible) to obtain. Mechanical parts for these early models are still readily available.
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Auto gearbox oil check

All Automatic Models: The dipstick for the auto box has min & max markings in two places to indicate the correct levels when either hot or cold. When the gearbox is cold you clearly use the 'cold' markings, however these should be for reference only, as to obtain correct readings, the level should be checked when hot.
If you have driven over 16km (24km in frigid temperatures) and the fluid temperature is 70-80oC, the gearbox is hot. If it has just been driven for a long time at high speed or in city traffic in hot weather, or if it has been pulling a trailer, an accurate fluid level cannot be obtained. Check it after it has been allowed to cool for about 30 minutes. The method for actually checking the level is the same regardless of the temperature of the gearbox. Start the engine, with both handbrake and footbrake firmly applied move the gear selector to each setting in turn. Leave in in each setting for a few seconds before moving to the next position, return to Park. Leaving the engine running and the selector in Park, remove the dipstick, wipe clean and reinsert to check the fluid level using the appropriate temperature marking on the dipstick. The gearbox is filled/topped up thru the dipstick tube, there is no separate filling point.
If the fluid is black, or burnt smelling it should be changed.
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Is there a problem with the Cylinder head on some models?

2nd Gen 2.4TD only: The 2.4TD has gained a reputation for cracked cylinder heads. Some suggest that eventually they will all crack, this is not true. Many owners have had 2.4's for many years without trouble.
It is true to say that certain 2nd Gen models with the 2.4TD will have a tendency to crack, this does not mean that they will, but that they suffer a greater likelihood of doing so. The problem arises from a less than perfect design of the water chambers above the valves. Despite this less than perfect design, these vehicles and their cylinders heads have lasted many years without cracking (the last 2.4 Surfs were made in 1992) and with care should be OK for many more. What will cause them to crack is overheating (and remember that this will potentially crack the head on any vehicle). Despite lists from Toyota apparently indicating the production dates of those with the weak design, they have been know to crack on vehicles outside of the stated production period. It is impossible to put a percentage figure on chances of a 2.4 cracking its cylinder head.
It is generally accepted that if the head is going to go it seems to do so within around 18 months of arriving in Europe.
Replacement heads are readily available but you should take great care when choosing one, never accept a reconditioned one as its sure to go again, as the reconditioning (welding) cannot correct the design flaw in the head.
Replacement heads may be the same as the original (i.e. with the poor water chamber design) or of the newer 'modified' design which should not suffer the same problems, unfortunately there is no visible method of distinguishing between them. To determine if the head is of the replacement design you must either be able to measure the thickness of the waterways with a micrometer, or better yet buy one from a reputable supplier who can guarantee its one of the modified design.
The Stevo engine co Ltd in Stockport, UK and 4x4 Toys in Basingstoke, UK both have excellent reputations for the supply and/or fitment of the correct modified design cylinder heads
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Owners Manuals / Handbooks etc

1st & 2nd Gen: Whilst there are no readily obtainable workshop manuals specifically for the 2nd Gen Surf, those for the 4Runner generally prove adequate, check out the following;
  • Toyota Hilux/4 Runner 1970-1997 Petrol Engines : Automobile Technical/Repair Manual (Max Ellery)
  • Toyota Hilux/4 Runner 1979-1997 Diesel Engine : Automobile Technical/Repair Manual (Max Ellery)
  • Toyota Hi-Lux and 4 Runner (Diesel) Australian Automotive Repair Manual: 1979 to 1996 (Haynes Repair Manuals)*
  • Toyota Hi-Lux and 4 Runner (Petrol) Australian Automotive Repair Manual (Haynes Repair Manuals)

*Note: This manual does not cover the Turbo aspect of the engine.

All are available in our online shop

A combination of the Max Ellery and the Diesel Haynes 4Runner above seems to be the most comprehensive.

3rd Gen: There are no readily obtainable workshop manuals specifically for the 3rd Gen Surf, those for the 4Runner generally prove adequate although they will not cover the Diesel engines. For Diesel coverage see the listing under all models below. Check out the following;

  • Toyota Tacoma, 4Runner and T100 Automotive Repair Manual: 1993 to 2000 (Haynes Repair Manuals)

This is available in our online shop

All Models: Translated versions of the original Japanese owner’s handbooks are available, please note however, that all versions of these translated books appear to have the model years listed incorrectly. One is listed for 89-93, but in fact covers all 2nd Gen models up to late 1995, whilst another is listed for 93-01, but actually covers only the 3rd  Gen model only which did not arrive until late 1995

These are available in our online shop

Engine workshop manuals: You can view a copy of the official 3.0TD workshop manual at http://www.showmesome.info/hilux/info/manuals/1KZ-TE/

Also very useful are the Toyota EPC (Electronic Parts Catalogue) discs, these are officially used for identifying part numbers for ordering spares, they can also prove useful in determining how some items are assembled. This can be obtained using torrent software, its a 1.5GB download and covers Japanese market vehicles up to 2000 (and European market to 2002). Torrent file is available here or if you're on dial-up you may prefer it broken into more manageable chunks for downloading, which you can do courtesy of MattF on his site here, check the readme file first as it will explain exactly which files to download if you just need coverage for a specific model.
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